1500字APA格式essay中著作和论文的文中夹注与参考文献写法

APA格式作为国外大学essay写作中比较常见的一种文献格式,对我们留学新生来说遇到一些几百字的short essay可以不用写reference,而遇到超过1500字的essay一般来说就会有相应的reference list条目数量要求,这就需要大家根据APA格式写作规范来书写reference. 接下来教育小编来讨论一下APA格式中常见的著作和论文的文中夹注与参考文献的写法:

1. Books 著作

1) Book with one author (一位作者的著作)

Reference citation in text (文中夹注)

Rosenthal (1987) has argued that …or … this is significant (Rosenthal, 1987).
If the author’s name is not in the text, include it in the parentheses.

J. Sandemose has discussed this in his biography (2004, pp.522-552).
It is recommended to include the page number (or chapter) in addition to the year when paraphrasing or referring to a passage. This is optional.

In bibliography (参考文献)
Rosenthal, R. (1987). Meta-analytic procedures for social research. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Sandemose, J. (2004). Aksel Sandemose: A biography. Oslo: Aschehoug.

2) Book with two to seven authors (2到7位作者的著作)

Reference citation in text (文中夹注)

Beck and Sales (2001 ) here establish a new theory.
or A new theory is established here (Beck & Sales, 2001).
In all subsequent citations to books with two authors, repeat both names and year.

This is also analysed in terms of theories of aesthetics (Carlsen,Nielsen, & Rasmussen, 2001).
With 3-5 authors, write all names in the first citation. In subsequent citations write only the first author’s surname followed by et al. (et al. = “and others”.) With 6 or more authors,cite only the first author’s surname followed by et al. in allcitations. The year is included in all citations, e.g.(Carlsen et al., 2001).

In bibliography (参考文献)
Beck, C. A. J., & Sales, B. D. (2001). Family mediation:Facts, myths, and future prospects. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Carlsen, M. S., Nielsen, K. G., & Rasmussen, K. S. (2001). Deleuze’s philosophy. Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum.
All authors’ names (up to 7) are written in the bibliography.
(八位作者以上的情况比较少见,有的话建议大家尽量避开~)

3) Chapter in book with editor (选集中的章节)

Reference citation in text (文中夹注)
There are, as Sleeter (1995) has proven, large variations.
The in-text citation refers to the author of the chapter.

In bibliography (参考文献)
Sleeter, C. E. (1995). Radical structuralist perspectives and learning disabilities. In T. M. Skrtic (Ed.), Disability and democracy:Reconstructing(special) education for postmodernity (pp. 153-165). New York : Teachers College.
Chapter author and chapter title are written first, then the editor(s),book title (in italics), and chapter page numbers (in parentheses).The reference to the book begins with “In”.

2. Articles 论文

1) Article with one author (一位作者的论文)
Reference citation in text (文中夹注)
From printed journal without DOI (Digital Object Identifier): 
没有数字对象标识符的出版期刊
According to Friscolanti, we are entering “a new age of hybrid tanks… and biogenerators that transform trash into power” (2009, p. 35).
Write … in a quote if words are excluded. Write the page number of the quote.

From online journal without DOI: 
没有数字对象标识符的网络期刊
Skull fractures caused by golf balls can inflict brain damage in young children (Steinbok, 2008).

From journal (printed or online) with DOI: 
有数字对象标识符的出版或网络期刊
Since 1970 the number of children who have received the diagnosis autism has tripled(Safran, 2008, p. 92). “The term autism has undergone a complete transformation since the 1940’s” writes psychologist S. P. Safran (ibid., p.90).
When there are several citations to the same source,“ibid.” can be used. Include the pagenumber of the quote.

In bibliography (参考文献)
From printed journal without DOI(Digital Object Identifier): 
Friscolanti, M. (2009). Lean, green war machine. Maclean’s, 121(51),35-36.
The title of the journal (not the article) is in italics. Volume in italics. Issue in parentheses, and not in italics. Write page number(s) for the entire article.

From online journal without DOI:
Steinbok, P. (2008). Operative management of growing skull fractures. Child’s Nervous System, 24(5), 605-607. Retrieved from http://www.springerlink.com
Write complete URL if content is freely available (open access).Write URL of the journal’s home page if available by subscription (this example).

From journal (printed or online) with DOI:
Safran, S. P. (2008). Why youngsters with autistic spectrum disorders remain underrepresented in special education.
Remedial and Special Education, 29(2), 90- 95. doi:10.1177/0741932507311637
Do not write the name of the database or URL because the DOI is a specific identifier and link to content when written in the address line of a browser or in a doiresolver.

2) Article with several authors 有多位作者的论文
Reference citation in text (文中夹注)
Articles with two authors: 有两位作者的论文
Write both names in all citations. 
The study shows that men do more housework after they become fathers (Deutsch, Lussier, & Servis, 1993, p. 116).

Articles with 3-5 authors: 有3-5位作者的论文
Write all names in the first citation. In the next citation to the same article, name only the first author followed by et al. and year. Page number is optional, but recommended.

Articles with more than five authors: 有五位以上作者的论文
Write only the first author followed by et al. and the year, for all citations.

In bibliography (参考文献)
The title of the journal (not the article) in italics.
Deutsch, F. M., Lussier, J. B., & Servis, L. J. (1993).Husbands at home. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 115- 117.
For articles with up to six authors, write all names. For articles with seven or more authors, write the first six names followed by … and then the last author’s name. (This example shows an article from a printed journal without DOI.)

3) Newspaper article 报纸文章
Reference citation in text (文中夹注)
Printed newspaper: 出版的报纸
Obesity has a direct correlation, not only to heart disease and cancer, but also to poverty (Schwartz, 2005).

Online newspaper: 网络报纸
The economic crisis in the USA strengthens Obama’s chances of winning the presidential election (Nagourney & Bumiller, 2008).

In bibliography (参考文献)
newspaper: 出版的报纸
Schwartz, J. (2005, September 30). Obesity affects economic,social status. The Washington Post, pp. A1, A4-A5.
If an article appears on discontinuous pages, give all page numbers, and separate the numbers with a comma.

Online newspaper:网络报纸
Nagourney, A., & Bumiller, E. (2008, September 25). McCainleaps into a thicket. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com

超过1500字的essay对我们大多数中国留学生来说写作都有难度,不论是字数要求还是格式要求还是reference list写作规范都比较难写,建议大家交给我们老牌机构来完成,投身留学生essay代写行业,立志成为专业优秀的essay代写品牌,欢迎广大留学小伙伴对我们的服务进行评价,提出建议和意见,我们将竭诚为您提供最专业、最高效、最精湛的essay代写服务,欢迎咨询网站客服。

一些写作学术词汇分享Essay report写作的学术词

对于Essay写作,词汇和语法都是最基本的东西,而词汇基本分为一般词汇和学术词汇。需要Essay代写
词汇本身并没有好坏之分,只有恰当与否。只有灵活运用各种词汇,才能写好Essay.
下面就给大家讲解一下Essay写作的单词表AWL.学术词汇的分类一般来说,学术词汇可以分为以下几类
1:学术用途的专用词汇
2:学术用途中可以被接受的一般性词汇
3:特定于单个主题领域的技术词汇(TechnicalWords)我们先来看看什么是The GeneralService List(GSL)日常高频词汇。
首先有个单词表叫The GeneralService List(GSL),是Bauerand Nation在1995年开发的一个词汇表,主要包括了英语中最经常用的2500词族(Word Family),
我们常说的词汇(Vocabulary)其实就是包括中心词和它的衍生词汇之一:比如Develop:在我们说学术词汇之前,为什么要先说GSL呢?
尽管GSL只有不到3000多个中心词,但是它却涵盖了80%的书面文本单词和90%的英语口语单词。
同时里面有些单词也是可以用在学术场景里的,比如·The aim of this report is to…[seelanguage for reports]·
There are several possible reasons forthis·In comparison, the control group…但是有些单词就不可以用在学术场景里,
比如:·Spoken English is more informal thanacademic English.
It uses phrases like ‘like’ and things like that.·Acid rain is a bad thing for all ofus.
但是,我们平时学习大部分都是在学习GSL的一般词汇表,除了单独上过学术英语(English forAcademic)课程,
我们其实很难分辨什么是学术词汇,什么是一般词汇。首先我们要了解一下,什么是AWL?
学术英语词汇列表(AcademicWord List),这个概念是新西兰惠灵顿维多利亚大学AssociateProf. Averil Coxhead开发的,
里面包括经常出现在学术场景中570个中心词(Headwords)。研究表明过如果你能熟悉GSL和AWL,你基本上就可以理解90%以上你所阅读的学术文献或者材料。
我们经常想知道自己到底有多少词汇量,在我们手机上有很多APP或者网站去告诉我们词汇量有多少,但是你知道他设计的基础是从哪里来的吗?
当然都是基于词汇学习测试界研究的翘楚,Prof. PaulNation,他在1983年开发了第一个VocabularyLevel Test(VLT),
当然这个量表有很大的问题,但是基于这个成果,后续才会不断的有人进行开发和研究新的测试。
今天我们要推荐的VocabularySize Test,它也是Prof.Paul Nation的研究成果之一,这个测试是基于前面的理论研究进行不断的修改,
它的优势是在于可以检测出你的你的词族(WordFamily)的量。检测完后,会有一个简单的学习建议~快来试试吧!
在我们知道自己的词族量后,我们可能还想提高自己的词汇量,尤其学术写作的词汇。
那不妨来学习一下学术词汇表(AWL):http://www.uefap.com/vocab/select/awl.htm但是我们拿到单词表如何去学习呢?
去翻译去背诵?好像听起来对我们的学术Essay写作都没啥用,我们想通过学习AWL来提高我们的学术写作词汇,那我们来看看这个词汇正确的打开方式。
1.不要只是简单的背诵或者抄写词汇表,这样做除了能练习书法和费笔之外,你最后剩下的可能就只是记住Analyse。
2.多看英文原版的材料,尤其学术材料,看看材料中学术词汇的使用,形式是什么,在句子中的作用是什么。
简单来说,就是给自己创造一个场景去学习,这样去学词汇才更高效而且不会很无聊。
3.学会把词汇找机会尽可能的运用到自己的写作或者学术活动中,还是那句话PracticeMakes Perfect。
总结Conclusion词汇学习在语言学习中很重要,但不是最重要的。
我们学习语言,最终的目的是为了交流(Communication),不管是我们口头上的Presentation,还是我们的写作Essay,Report,
我们的目的都是要用语言这个工具把我们的想法和观点告诉别人。
以上就是关于Essay写作词汇的讲解,希望同学们都可以正确运用词汇,写好Essay. 如需其他学术服务可以咨询我们的客服哦